Direct Loans, sometimes called Stafford Loans, are low-cost, fixed-rate federal student loans available to both undergraduate and graduate students.
There are two types of Direct Loans for undergraduate students:
Direct Subsidized Loans
Direct Unsubsidized Loans
Key Direct Loan benefits for undergraduate students:
You need to file the FAFSA (Free Application for Federal Student Aid) before you can take out federal student loans from the Direct Loans program.
Most students who qualify for federal aid are eligible to take out Direct Loans.
The interest rate on Direct Subsidized and Unsubsidized Loans for undergraduate students is fixed and does not change over the life of the loan. The interest rate for the 2018-2019 academic year is 5.05%. This is less expensive than the 7.6% interest rate on Parent PLUS Loans.
Every year on July 1, interest rates are reset based on current market rates. The interest rates are based on the 10-year Treasury Note (determined each year by the final auction prior to June 1) plus a fix margin (see table).
|Loan Program||Interest Rate Formula||Interest Rate Cap||Current Interest Rate (2018-2019)|
|Direct Subsidized and Unsubsidized Loans for Undergraduate Students||10-Year Treasury + 2.05%||8.25%||5.05%|
The interest on Direct Subsidized and Unsubsidized Loans starts to add up (accrue) from the date the loan is first disbursed. If you don’t pay the interest as it accrues, it will be capitalized (added to the loan balance), increasing the size of the loan.
Interest rates: Fixed, 2006-2007 to present
|Academic Year||Direct Subsidized Loans
|Direct Unsubsidized Loans
Interest rates: Variable, prior to 2006-2007
Before 2006-2007, interest rates on Stafford Loans (now known as Direct Loans) were variable, with different rates, depending on whether the borrower was in school, in the 6-month grace period after leaving school, or in the repayment period. (In 1993-1994 and earlier award years, the interest rates were the same for the in-school, grace, and repayment periods.) Interest rates during the repayment period were 0.60% higher (see table).
At that time, borrowers could lock in their interest rate (rounded to the nearest 1/8th of a percentage point) by consolidating the loans. Rates were the same for undergraduate, graduate, and professional students. Interest rates were also the same for subsidized and unsubsidized Stafford Loans.
|Academic Year||In-School and Grace Periods||Repayment Period|
Fees on Direct Loans
The current fee on Direct Subsidized and Unsubsidized Loans for undergraduate students is 1.066%. This is less expensive than the 4.276% fee on Parent PLUS Loans.
||Total Loan Fees|
|2016-2017 (10/1/16 - 9/30/17)||1.069%|
|2015-2016 (10/1/15 - 9/30/16)||1.068%|
|2014-2015 (10/1/14 - 9/30/15)||1.073%|
|2014-2015 (7/1/14 - 9/30/14)||1.072%|
|2013-2014 (12/1/13 - 6/30/14)||1.072%|
|2013-2014 (7/1/13 - 11/30/13)||1.051%|
|2005-2006 and before||4.0%|
How fees affect the total loan cost
Loan fees are basically a form of up-front interest. For example, if your loan has a 10-year repayment term, a 4% fee is the about the same as an increase of about .875% to 1% in the interest rate. If your loan has a 30-year repayment term, a 4% fee is the same as an increase of about .334% to .5% in the interest rate.
The amount you can borrow from the Direct Loans program is subject to annual and aggregate (cumulative) loan limits.
Annual Loan Limits for Undergraduate Students
Aggregate (Cumulative) Loan Limits for Undergraduate Students
Loan limits are also capped at the college’s annual cost of attendance.
The cost of attendance includes:
While you are enrolled in school at least half-time, your Direct Loans will be placed into deferment, which means you don’t have to make any payments. In addition, you don’t have to make payments during the 6-month grace period after you graduate or drop below half-time enrollment status.
If you have Direct Subsidized Loans, the federal government pays the interest on your loans during these periods of authorized deferment.
If you have Direct Unsubsidized Loans, interest on your loans will start to accrue (add up) as soon as all of the loan funds are sent to your school. Even though you aren’t making any payments, interest is still adding up.
The standard repayment term on Direct Loans is 10 years. However, you can qualify for a longer repayment term if you consolidate the loans or have more than $30,000 in federal student loans.
Direct Loans are eligible for all of the different repayment plans offered by the U.S. Department of Education.
Eligible repayment plans:
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