Borrow federal first, because federal student loans are less expensive, more available and have better repayment terms than private student loans. Federal student loans have fixed interest rates that will not increase over the life of the loan, unlike variable interest rates which can change. Perkins Loans and Direct Subsidized and Unsubsidized Loans do not depend on the borrower’s credit history and do not require cosigners. Federal student loans offer generous deferment and forbearance options, flexible repayment plans like extended repayment, graduated repayment, and income-driven repayment, and opportunities of loan forgiveness programs like public service loan forgiveness.
Private student loans should be considered only after reviewing federal education loan options. And what some students may learn, federal education loans may not be an option. Some reasons could be, the student may have reached the loan limits or otherwise have lost eligibility for federal student loans (e.g., dropping below half-time enrollment or failing to maintain satisfactory academic progress). The student’s parents may be unwilling or unable to borrow from the Parent PLUS Loan program. Private student loans may be available for previous school charges, for borrowers who are not seeking a degree or certificate (e.g., continuing education), for international students (usually with a creditworthy U.S. citizen or eligible non-citizen as cosigner), and for education costs incurred after graduation (e.g., bar study loans for law school graduates and residency and relocation loans for medical school graduates).
For most borrowers, the best loan is the loan with the lowest cost. There are many factors that contribute to the cost of a loan, including interest rates, loan fees, subsidized interest, and loan forgiveness, discharge, and cancellation.
For more in depth information about the types of student loans that are available, check out these other articles.
The best federal education loans are the Direct Subsidized Loan. This loan has subsidized interest, fixed interest rates, and low fees. Next are Direct Unsubsidized Loans, followed by the PLUS Loan. Private student loans have interest rates that depend on the borrower’s credit scores and debt-service-to-income ratios, as do home equity loans and other non-education loans. Most private student loans require a creditworthy cosigner. Credit cards often have some of the highest interest rates and require monthly payments that start off higher and gradually get smaller, because the monthly payment is usually based on a fixed percentage of the outstanding loan balance.
Federal and private student loans do not require the borrower to pledge a home or other asset as collateral. In other words, these are unsecured loans. If the borrower defaults on a home equity loan, he or she can lose the home. If the borrower defaults on a student loan, the lender cannot repossess the student’s education.
This chart compares some of the major features of federal and private student loans.
|Loan Program||Borrower||Interest Rates||Loan Fee||Subsidized?||Requires Good Credit?|
|Direct Subsidized Loan||Undergraduate Students||Fixed 4.53%||1.059%||Yes||No|
|Direct Unsubsidized Loan||Undergraduate Students||Fixed 4.53%||1.059%
|Direct Unsubsidized Loan||Graduate Students||Fixed 6.08%||1.059%
|Parent PLUS Loan||Parents of Dependent Undergraduate Students||Fixed 7.08%||4.236%||No||Yes|
|Grad PLUS Loan||Graduate Students||Fixed 7.08%||4.236%||No||Yes|
|Private Student Loan||Student and Cosigner||Fixed or Variable||Varies by lender||No||Yes|
|State Loan||Student and Cosigner||Fixed or Variable||Varies by lender||No||Yes|
After cost, secondary factors that can help distinguish loan programs include who is responsible for repaying the debt (e.g., the student or the parent/cosigner), flexible repayment and deferment options, and the quality of lender customer service.
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