After exhausting sources of gift aid like grants and scholarships, you should always borrow federal first before turning to parent education loans and private student loans. Federal student loans, such as Direct Subsidized and Unsubsidized Loans, are cheaper, more available, and have better repayment terms.
Check our our Annual Loan Limits infographic for a visual breakdown
Here are some of the many benefits of federal student loans:
There are only a handful of downsides to federal student loans. Federal student loans have annual and cumulative loan limits. If you are enrolled at a high-cost college, you may need additional financing, such as private student loans, to bridge the gap between the annual cost of attendance (COA) and the expected family contribution (EFC). You need to maintain satisfactory academic progress (e.g., a minimum 2.0 Grade Point Average (GPA)) to continue to receive federal student loans and other federal student aid. Federal and private student loans are almost impossible to discharge in bankruptcy.
Direct Loans offer a fixed interest rate. Direct Loans for undergraduates, including both Direct Subsidized Loans and Direct Unsubsidized Loans, have a fixed rate of 5.05% during the 2018-2019 award year. Direct Unsubsidized Loans for graduate students have a fixed rate of 6.6%.
Each year’s new loans will have different interest rates, but these interest rates will remain the same for the life of the loans.
These low interest rates do not depend on your credit history and do not require a creditworthy cosigner.
If you are an undergraduate student, you may borrow a combined $5,500 to $12,500 per year in Direct Subsidized and Unsubsidized Loans, depending on your year in school and on your dependency status. If you are attending graduate school or professional school, you may borrow up to $20,500 per year in Direct Unsubsidized Loans.
No payments are required on a Direct Loan until six months after you graduate or drop below half-time enrollment.
In addition, the federal government pays the interest on the Direct Subsidized Loan while you are enrolled in college on at least a half-time basis. (Previously, the federal government also paid the interest during the six-month grace period after graduation. This benefit was suspended for loans made during the 2012-2013 and 2013-2014 award years.)
Similar to the in-school and grace period deferments, deferments and forbearances are temporary suspensions of the obligation to repay. They are good for short-term financial difficulty, such as during medical or maternity leave or while you are between jobs. But because interest can continue to accrue, the loan balance may grow, digging you into a deeper hole. If you are experiencing a longer-term financial difficulty, you may be better off in an alternate repayment plan, such as income-based repayment or extended repayment.
Federal student loans offer several flexible repayment plans:
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